Imam Ali Bin Abi Taleb and Negotiations Dr. Saeb Erekat), part three

Imam Ali Bin Abi Taleb and Negotiations Dr. Saeb Erekat), part three

The elements of negotiations in the “Islamic” tradition
The influence of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) on Imama Ali’s thoughts on negotiations
The rules and principles of negotiations for Imam ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib derive from the verses of the Holy Qur’an and the sayings (hadīth) of the Prophet Muhammad (hereafter referred to as Prophet Muhammad, the Great Prophet, or the Messenger of Allah). Allah says, “There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion.”25 “Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good instruction, and argue with them in a way that is best. Indeed, your Lord is most knowing of who has strayed from His way, and He is most knowing of who is [rightly] guided.”26 “And do not argue with the People of the Scripture except in a way that is best.”27 “Indeed, those who dispute concerning the signs of Allah without [any] authority having come to them - there is not within their breasts except pride, [the extent of] which they cannot reach.”28
‘Alī was schooled in Islam from childhood and his model was the Prophet Muhammad. He did not worship idols and was among the first to respond to the call of the Prophet. He was only ten years old when he made the shahada declaration (that there is no God but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah).
When the Prophet migrated from Mecca to Medina (known as the hijrah), he left all the money entrusted to him by the people with ‘Alī to return it to its rightful owners. At one point, ‘Alī was in bed and infidels came to him, brandishing their swords, seeking to kill him and shed his blood. But ‘Alī remained calm; he neither panicked nor tried to escape. Later the Imam followed the Prophet to Medina and the Prophet declared, “‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib loves Allah and His Messenger, and Allah and His Messenger love ‘Alī ibn Abī

25 The Holy Qur’an. Surat Al-Baqarah, verse 256.
26 The Holy Qur’an. Surat Al-Nahl, verse 125.
27 The Holy Qur’an. Surat Al-Ankabut, verse 46.
28 The Holy Qur’an. Surat Ghafir, verse 56.

Ṭālib.” On another occasion, the Prophet gave ‘Alī the banner to go and meet the Jewish Chieftain, Marhab, during the siege of Khaybar in 629 C.E.
‘Alī was taught in the school of the Prophet. When the call to Islam began, Muhammad was not wealthy and was not a man of power or position. The interests of Quraish contradicted the call of the Prophet, who was trying to make his way through negotiations, sound argument and logic. These were the pillars that ‘Alī learned from the Prophet and his other companions. ‘Alī learned patience and humility from Muhammad, and not to argue boisterously or boastfully. These issues were thoroughly described by Imam Abū Ḥāmid Al- Ghazālī in his book ihya’ ‘ulūm al-dīn (The Revival of Religious Sciences). In the introduction, the author states: “Discussion that is set for the purpose of prevailing and confutation, revealing virtue and honor, ranting at people, showing off and competing with people, appealing to people and soliciting their satisfaction, is the fountain of all behavior disparaged by God and praised by His enemy the devil.”29
Imam ‘Alī and other companions of the Prophet Muhammad learned that negotiations are not a match or competition; neither are they designed to have winners and losers. They learned that negotiations are not founded on a zero sum game, but that they are sharīʿah provisions.
‘Alī noticed that the Prophet used to start and end his speeches by calling people to Islam amicably and with kindness, even though the era he lived in was full of corruption including debauchery, usury, injustice, libertinism, vice, treason, cruelty and drunkenness. The Prophet lived in an era in which the wolf was the shepherd, the enemy was the judge and the ignorant was the teacher.
Not only that, the Islamic tradition gave prominence to the acquisition of knowledge, as an essential prerequisite in conducting negotiations. Imam ‘Alī explained that the first verse Gabriel revealed to Muhammad was, “Recite in the name of your Lord who created man from a clinging substance. Recite, and your Lord is the most Generous, who taught by the pen, taught man that which he knew not.”30 The prophecy begins with the word ‘Recite’ thus putting the

29 For more information, see:, Abu Hamid Al-Ghazzali, (Iḥyāʾ ʻulūm al-dīn, Cairo, Dar Al-Hadi, 1992) (Revival of the Religious Sciences), ed. Abu Ḥafs ibn Ibrāhīm, , p. 68.
30 The Holy Qur’an. Surat Al-‘Alaq, verses 1-5.

foundation and significance of Islam in as far as negotiations are concerned. Nowhere was this as evident as during the time of conflict with Quraish.
‘Alī witnessed and experienced the way Quraish dealt with the Prophet and how he dealt with them. In addition, he must have followed with interest what ‘Utbah ibn Rabī‘a said concerning the conduct of negotiations with the infidels of Quraish and their bargain to strip the Prophet of any legitimacy.
Negotiating behavior: attitude towards the infidels of Quraish
In the following pages, three cases will be examined to show the manner by which the elements of negotiations espoused by Roger Fisher were in many respects present in the negotiations tradition of Prophet Muhammad.
Prophet Muhammad’s negotiating skills and the impact on Ali
In the early days of the call to Islam, the infidels of Quraish treated those who responded to Allah’s call with violence and oppression. The infidels mocked and taunted believers. When the infidels of Quraish failed to make the believers give up their faith in Islam, they adopted the carrot and stick method as a new negotiation policy.
The infidels of Quraish realized that Ḥamzah ibn ‘Abdul Muṭṭallib31 and ‘Umar ibn Al-Khaṭṭab had accepted Islam and declared it their new religion, and, as a result, there were changes in the political balance, the alliances and powers in Mecca and around it. Hence the infidels of Quraish held a meeting for the leaders of Mecca in which ‘Utbah ibn Rabī‘a32 said, “People of Quraish, shall I go to Muhammad and talk to him? I will put before him many suggestions, some of which he might accept. I will give him whatever he asks for so that he will leave us alone.” The people of Quraish responded, “Abu Al-Walīd33, go and talk to Muhammad.” ‘Utbah went to Muhammad and when the Messenger of Allah sat down, ‘Utbah said, “My nephew, you are one of us and you hold a good position in our clan and enjoy good kinship. You have brought to your people a grave matter that has divided them and stultified their dreams. Listen to my propositions so that you may think about them, and they are hoping that

31 A cousin of Muhammad and one of the first to die for the new faith
32 One of the chieftains of Quraish. Was killed by Hamza ibn Abdul Muttallib, the cousin of the prophet
33 The nickname of ‘Utbah ibn Rabī‘a

you will accept some of them.” Muhammad replied, “Say what you want to say.”34
It would have only been natural for ‘Alī to notice the behavior of ‘Utbah in lifting the status of the Muhammad with the intention to embarrass him and make him bear enormous responsibilities, if he were to refuse the proposition. It must be noted that ‘Utbah adopted a negotiating behavior based on dictation and not on negotiations. In other words, ‘Utbah said to Muhammad that he acknowledged and appreciated the latter’s social status but his perseverance in what he was doing was considered a serious crime that divided the people and destroyed their religion.
‘Utbah ibn Rabī‘a told Muhammad, “If, by doing this, you seek money, we have collected money from our funds so that you can be the richest among us. And if you seek honor, we can make you our master ready to obey your orders. And if you seek property, we can make you king over us. And if this which comes to you is a vision of which you cannot be healed, we can seek medical help and spend our money until you recover.”35
The Prophet heard the propositions of the infidels of Quraish, which, in return for abandoning the call to Islam, included:
1) Providing Muhammad with money so that he might become wealthier than the people of Mecca.
2) Offering Muhammad a high status in society and making him master over them.
3) Giving Muhammad property and making him king over them.
However, if the Messenger of Allah were to refuse the offer, they would declare him insane and conclude that he needed treatment. It was a serious offer with a subterfuge of threat and intimidation.
The fact that the infidels of Quraish showed readiness to make Muhammad wealthy and master over them may be regarded as the greatest concession, on their part, in the history of Mecca. In return for this concession, Prophet Muhammad would have to abandon the call of Islam and declare that he was a

34 For more information, see: Al-Sirjānī, Rāghib The Attitude of ‘Utbah Ibn Rabi’a Toward the Messenger of Allah. Retrieved from, 2010
35 Ibid.

false prophet seeking social status and wealth. In other words, the infidels of Quraish had determined their negotiation ceiling and what they wanted to get from Muhammad, namely for him to give up legitimacy, prophecy and message.
‘Alī must have comprehended why the Messenger of Allah did not interrupt ‘Utbah ibn Rabī‘a but at the end asked him, “Are you finished Abu Al-Walīd?” Abu Al-Walīd confirmed that he was. The Messenger of Allah said to him, “Then hear what I have to say.”
The Prophet did not lose his temper and did not attack ‘Utbah ibn Rabī‘a. Rather he asked ‘Utbah gently and politely if he had finished his talk. Then very respectfully Muhammad asked ‘Utbah ibn Rabī‘a, “Did you finish Abu Al- Walīd?” Muhammad did not even use the first name of ‘Utbah but addressed him as Abu Al-Walīd and added, “Hear what I have to say.” In other words, the Messenger of Allah wanted ‘Utbah ibn Rabī‘a to listen to what he had to say in the same way he had listened attentively to ‘Utbah. Muhammad treated ‘Utbah with respect, even though the message of the latter was laced with threat and intimidation, and a call to give up legitimacy and the call of Islam.
‘Alī perceived that the Prophet was a shrewd politician and wise negotiator and that he argued in accordance with a specific legitimacy that had been decreed, especially when he said to ‘Utbah, “Then hear what I have to say.” The Prophet Muhammad began to recite the Surat Fussilat (Chapter 41 of the Holy Qur’an), “… [This is] a revelation from the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful. A Book whose verses have been detailed, an Arabic Qur'an for a people who know, as a giver of good tidings and a warner; but most of them turn away, so they do not hear. And they say, "Our hearts are within coverings from that to which you invite us, and in our ears is deafness, and between us and you is a partition, so work; indeed, we are working." … But if they turn away, then say, "I have warned you of a thunderbolt like the thunderbolt [that struck] 'Aad36 and Thamud.”37
The negotiations failed because the infidels of Quraish offered things that were important to them (money, social status, property and women) as the main

36 ‘Aad and Thamud are ancient civilizations in the Arabian Peninsula.
37 The Holy Qur’an. Surat Fussilat, verses 1-5 and 12.

means to create a common ground with the Messenger of Allah, on condition that the latter gave up legitimacy in return. The negotiation behavior of the infidels of Quraish was based on their assumption that Muhammad was motivated by personal interests and that he was using the divine message to achieve personal and private aims. This false assumption was their strategic fault.
‘Utbah ibn Rabī‘a and the leaders of the infidels of Quraish realized that their assumption was baseless. Muhammad based his call on divine legitimacy aiming to ensure the salvation and welfare of mankind by way of commanding the good and forbidding evil. Therefore, when ‘Utbah ibn Rabī‘a returned to Quraish Council after hearing the Prophet’s recital of Surat Fussilat, he said to members of the Council, “I have heard words being recited to me the likes of which I have not heard before. I swear by Allah it was not poetry or magic or divination. People of Quraish obey me and leave this man alone.” The Council replied, “He has charmed you Abu Al-Walīd with his tongue.”38
The negotiations were doomed to failure. The peaceful solution sought by the infidels of Quraish, was based on bartering money, social status and property for legitimacy, which Muhammad had been sent to preach by God. When the infidels of Quraish tried to make more offers to him including their sharing legitimacy with the Messenger of Allah, by suggesting that each worship their own god, the Prophet replied, “Say, O disbelievers, I do not worship what you worship. Nor are you worshippers of what I worship. Nor will I be a worshipper of what you worship. Nor will you be worshippers of what I worship. For you is your religion, and for me is my religion.”39
The seven elements were evident in the negotiating behavior of the infidels of Quraish:
Interests: For the infidels of Quraish, interests meant Muhammad giving up the call to Islam. They assumed that the interests of the Messenger of Allah were associated with money, social status and property.
Options: The options for the infidels of Quraish were concerned with holding the Messenger of Allah responsible for the disagreements and divisions taking

38 Ragheb Al-Sirjānī, The Attitude of ‘Utbah Ibn Rabi’a Toward the Messenger of Allah
39 The Holy Qur’an. Surat Al-Kafirun, verses 1-6.

place in Mecca. And if he refused money, social status and property he would be accused of insanity and taken to a physician.
Communication: The mechanism of communication adopted by the infidels of Quraish was based on the norms and customs of communication at that time. Communication took place through one person selected by the rest of the community. Usually that person had a high social status and was eloquent, intelligent and well mannered. (In this case, ‘Utbah ibn Rabī‘a).
Legitimacy: Legitimacy for the infidels of Quraish was the continuation of the situation as it had always been (idolatry). What followed later was sharing the legitimacy: idolatry and worshipping the God of Muhammad.
Relationship: The relationships among the members of the Meccan community were socially, economically and politically intertwined. The entry of ‘Umar ibn Al-Khaṭṭāb and Ḥamzah ibn ‘Abdul Muṭṭallib, as well as the high status of the ‘Abdul Muṭṭallib family in general, made it imperative for the infidels of Quraish to communicate and behave, in order to build a common ground. When all of this failed, there was talk about killing the Messenger of Allah. The ‘Abdul Muṭṭallib family called for a meeting in order to protect their son Muhammad and defeat his enemies.
Commitment: The infidels of Quraish presented commitment accurately. For them, common ground meant that the Messenger of Allah would give up his call or accept idolatry. In return, Muhammad would be rich and enjoy an eminent social status. If Muhammad refused, he would be responsible for the consequences and would be considered insane.
Alternatives: For the infidels of Quraish the alternatives were very clear. In the event of the failure of negotiations and rejection of their offers, they would resort to the sword. They realized that Muhammad did not seek to approximate viewpoints or accept a common ground; rather, he was looking for establishing and consolidating his divine message.
Imam ‘Alī and the other companions of the Prophet would have been well aware of the inevitability of the failure of negotiations between the infidels of Quraish and Prophet Muhammad, who would never compromise his legitimacy as the Messenger of Allah.

Nevertheless, Muhammad did not quarrel with ‘Utbah or interrupt his speech. The Messenger of Allah heard every single word that ‘Utbah had to say. Moreover, Muhammad did not try to mistreat or show contempt to ‘Utbah but rather addressed him respectfully as Abu Al-Walīd. He did not even argue with the offers made to him by ‘Utbah, but responded to him using the strict and decisive language of the Holy Qur’ and the moral and religious code or legislation (sharī‘ah) which it prescribed. Prophet Muhammad showed that the religion of Islam is not based on money, social status or property but on morality, and that the end does not justify the means. The aim, according to Muhammad, was to spread monotheism and the message of Allah, and his means was revelation. Finally, the offers made by the infidels of Quraish to the Messenger of Allah came as temptation to him. There is no doubt that Muhammad acknowledged this.
After the first offer made to Muhammad, the infidels of Quraish sent a second delegation40 telling him, “We worship what you worship and you worship what we worship.” As ‘Alī well realized, the reply of the Messenger of Allah came from the Holy Qur’an, Surat Al-Kāfirūn (Chapter 109).
During the other stages of negotiations, the infidels of Quraish sent a third delegation consisting of ‘Abdallah ibn Umayya, Al-Walīd ibn Al-Mughīrah, Mukraz ibn Ḥafṣ and ‘Amr ibn Al-Ās. The request, this time, was that Muhammad would denounce some parts of the Holy Qu’ran. They asked him to delete, from the Qur’an, the parts that spoke against their gods. The Messenger of Allah answered them by reciting from the Qur’an,: “And when Our verses are recited to them as clear evidences, those who do not expect the meeting with Us say, "Bring us a Qur'an other than this or change it." Say, [O Muhammad], "It is not for me to change it on my own accord. I only follow what is revealed to me. Indeed I fear, if I should disobey my Lord, the punishment of a tremendous Day.”41
Later, the infidels of Quraish asked the Messenger of Allah to blow up water springs, create palm groves, to cause the sky to fall, to have a house garnished

40 The delegation included Al-Aswad ibn ‘Abdul Muṭṭallib, Al-Walīd ibn Al-Mughīrah, Umayya ibn Khalaf and Al- Ās ibn Wā’il.
41 The Holy Qur’an. Surat Yunus, verse 15. For more information see The Negotiations of Quraish with the
Prophet, 2008; available from

with gold, to ascend to heaven, to cause the mountains to move, to cleave the earth and make their ancestors rise back to life, to bring God and the angels, and bring each one of them a book from heaven.42
The negotiations with the infidels clearly focused on the words of God and only on that, ‘Alī witnessed what the Messenger of Allah had been exposed to, by accepting God’s call and entering into Islam. The Prophet endured false accusations, torture and ridicule as a result of entering into Islam. Muhammad based his negotiations on the words of Allah, “And [remember, O Muhammad], when those who disbelieved plotted against you to restrain you or kill you or evict you [from Mecca]. But they plan, and Allah plans. And Allah is the best of planners.”43
Pact (Ṣulḥ) of Al-Ḥudaybiyah
In order to ease the feud with the infidels of Quraish, the Messenger of Allah delegated Imam ‘Alī to write an agreement with them in this regard. The Prophet called ‘Alī and said to him, “Write this down, ‘Alī.”44
‘Alī wrote, “In the Name of God, the Most Merciful, the Compassionate.” But the Quraishi negotiator interrupted him, saying, “We do not know what is meant by merciful and compassionate. Write what you used to write before, ‘In your name O god.’” ‘Alī refused to erase what he had already written. But the Prophet Muhammad erased it and asked ‘Alī to write instead, “This is what Prophet Muhammad and Suhail ibn ‘Amr45 agreed on.” But the latter said, “If I had witnessed that you are the Messenger of Allah I would quarrel with you. Write down your name and the name of your father.” Muhammad asked ‘Alī to erase what he wrote, but ‘Alī refused. Muhammad then erased it himself and said, “Write: This is what Muhammad ibn ‘Abdallah and Suhail ibn ‘Amr agreed on. They agreed to spare people from war for ten years, during which they will live in security and leave each other in peace. Whoever comes to Muhammad from the Quraish, without the permission of his parents, will not be welcomed by Muhammad, and whoever comes to the Quraish from the companions of

42 Ibid.
43 The Holy Qur’an. Surat Al-‘Anfal, verse 30.
44 Abi Ja‘afar Ibn Jarīr Al-Ṭabarī, (Tarikh al-rusul wal-muluk) (History of the Prophets and Kings), vol. II, pp. 634- 635.
45 The representative of the tribe of Quraish during the negotiations over the Pact of Al-Ḥudaybiyah. Converted
later to Islam.

Muhammad, the Quraish will welcome him. There is between us a covenant not to steal from each other or betray each other.” After an agreement was reached, copies of the pact were exchanged. Prophet Muhammad took one copy of the agreement and Suhail ibn ‘Amr took another copy.
Imam ‘Alī wrote the provisions of the pact. As noted above, he refused to erase the phrase “In the Name of God, the Most Merciful, the Compassionate” and the phrase the “Messenger of God (pbuh).” There is no question that he examined carefully the provisions of the pact, which included:
1) Living in a state of truce for ten years, during which people would leave each other to live in peace.
2) Giving people a choice of whether to declare allegiance to Prophet Muhammad or to the Quraish.
3) Refusing to welcome whoever comes to the Prophet without the permission of his parents, and showing welcome to the companions of the Prophet who go to the Quraish.
Prophet Muhammad would return this year with his companions, enter Mecca next year with his companions and stay in it for three days, carrying nothing with them except the items that travelers need.
What is clear is that Prophet Muhammad focused on the content of the Pact of Al-Ḥudaybiyah, and not on the form. He was aware that there was no difference in saying “In the Name of God, the Most Merciful, the Compassionate” or “O God in your name.” For the Prophet and his companions the reference is made to one and the same God.
The omission of “Messenger of Allah” teaches us that the Muhammad’s Prophethood was a truth and a reality, whether others admitted it or not. The denial of this fact would not change it. For the infidels, he was Muhammad ibn ‘Abdallah. The question which arises is whether the Quraish’s acceptance to negotiate and reach an agreement with the Messenger of Allah constituted a recognition of the equality, legitimacy and message of the Prophet,? The Quraish tribe and its leaders were no longer able to prevent people from embracing Islam. Similarly, Prophet Muhammad was no longer considered an outlaw or insane, as the Quraish claimed. He was the transmitter of a message that people believed, and that was the beginning of the true collapse of the hegemony of Quraish.

‘Alī must have recognized that negotiations require legitimacy as a basis, and, in this respect, the Quraish’s recognition of the right of the people to join the new religion was considered to be a victory that paved the way for the conquest of Mecca. The Pact of Al-Ḥudaybiyah legitimized the call of Muhammad, as Allah’s messenger, and created a new and vast opportunity for the propagation of the call to Islam. By signing the Pact, the Prophet was able ensure ten years of peace. If the Quraish breached the agreement, he would wage war against them, and if Quraish kept the agreement then he would have a quiet atmosphere in which to spread the call to Islam. In fact, tQuraish did later violate the agreement when the Quraish-allied Bani Bakr (Bakr tribe) attacked the Bani Khuzā‘a (Khuzā‘a tribe). Muhammad considered the attack a violation of the Pact of Al-Ḥudaybiyah.
The commitment of the Prophet not to welcome anyone who wanted to embrace Islam without permission from their parents, and for the Quraish to welcome whoever came to them, reflects the commitment of Muslims to conventions and treaties. Those who wanted to enter into Islam but did not enter Medina did not do so out of a desire to return to Quraish, but simply as a fulfillment of their obligation to remain outside of Medina and Mecca. In fact, this gave Quraish many problems since these people attacked Quraish commercial caravans and damaged their commercial activities. Those who joined Islam out of faith would find it impossible to desert Islam and return to the Quraish.
Imam ‘Alī witnessed the companions of the Prophet rejecting his injunctions to offer sacrifice and shave after reaching the Pact Al-Ḥudaybiyah46. He also witnessed the wife of the Prophet, Hind bint Abū Umayyah (‘Um Salma) asking Muhammad: “What is wrong, Messenger of Allah? He told her about the reaction of the people and said, “Muslims have been damned. I asked them to offer sacrifice and shave but they refused.” She said to him, “Do not blame them, O Messenger of Allah, because they had great concern about your pain and weariness during the pact and their return without conquering Mecca.”

46 Imam ‘Alī knew about the huge opposition of the companions of the Messenger of Allah to the Pact of Al- Ḥudaybiyah and he was one of the companions who protested the erasing of the phrase “In the Name of God, the Most Merciful, the Compassionate” or “the Messenger of Allah.” He also heard ‘Umar ibn Khaṭṭāb say, “This material world has no place in our religion.”

She then asked him to offer sacrifice and shave his head. He did and when he went out and people saw him they also shaved and offered sacrifice.”47
Even though both ‘Alī and ‘Umar were opposed to the agreement, they signed it as witnesses. ‘Alī learned that opposition and rebellion were two different things. He learned that opposition meant free expression of opinion even if it was opposed to the opinion of the Messenger of Allah, when it was not related to sharīʿah. Likewise, ‘Um Salma counseled the Messenger of Allah. But when the companions of the Prophet realized that matters were related to sharīʿah they had no choice but to obey.
Imam ‘Alī could see the value of the woman who gave counsel to the Messenger of Allah and respected the status of women in Islam. He knew that opposition was different from rebellion and that negotiations should focus on content and not on form. In addition,‘Alī understood that strategy meant actions, the results of which we will live and experience every day of our future life.
In fact, as a result of Pact Al-Ḥudaybiyah:
The Quraish recognized the Islamic state and this had an impact on all other Arab tribes. The truce provided the opportunity to spread Islam. Muslims trusted the Quraish and had ample time to prepare for the jihād (the Khaybar invasion following the Pact of Al-Ḥudaybiyah, 629 C.E.). The Quraish’s tribal allies as well as those who entered into Islam after the Pact of Al-Ḥudaybiyah such as Khālid ibn Al-Walīd and ‘Amr ibn Al-‘Ās comprehended the true message of Islam. The Messenger of Allah began preparations for the invasion of mu’tah in order to spread Islam outside the borders of the Arab Peninsula. In addition, the Messenger of Allah sent messages to the Romans, Persians and Copts, calling them to Islam.
The Pact of Al-Ḥudaybiyah was a prelude to the conquest of Mecca.

47 For more information see Riyād Muhsin Al-Saykhan. (Al-mar’a wal-wilaya al-‘ammah bayna al-fiqh al-islami wal qawanin al-‘arabiyy, Beirut, 2011) (Women and Public Mandate in Islamic Jurisprudence and Arab Laws)., pp. 282-283.

As a result of the Pact, the Quraish recognized that the Messenger of Allah and his companions were now equal to the Quraish in terms of power and that they had their own legitimacy and the right to disseminate their call to Islam.
It was proven that negotiations were signed to be altered, amended, or cancelled, according to the interests and power of each party. Two years after signing the Pact of Al-Ḥudaybiyah, the Bani Bakr committed an act of treachery by attacking the Bani Khuza’a. As a result, Muhammad prepared for war and took his companions to Mecca, which they then conquered. People in Mecca converted to Islam in large numbers.
It is clear, therefore, that the seven elements of negotiation (interests, legitimacy, communication, options, commitment, alternative and relationships) were all present in the Pact Al-Ḥudaybiyah.
The Epistles of the Messenger of Allah
The discussions leading to the Pact of Al-Ḥudaybiyah provided a lesson in negotiations, as did the negotiations which the Quraish held with the Messenger of Allah, through the mediation of ‘Utbah ibn Rabī‘a.‘Alī and the other companions of the Prophet had much to learn from the Pact of Al- Ḥudaybiyah and negotiations with the Quraish.
When talking about the elements of negotiations according to Imam‘Alī, the epistles of the Prophet Muhammad demonstrate the influence of the Prophet on the development of the elements of negotiations according to Imam ‘Alī. The following letters attest to that.

الرجاء من السادة القراء ومتصفحي موقعنا الإلكتروني، الالتزام بالحوار البناء وآداب وقواعد النقاش عند كتابة الردود و التعليقات. وتجنب استعمال الكلمات النابية أو الحاطة للكرامة الإنسانية، فكيفما كان الخلاف في الرأي يجب أن يسود الاحترام بين الجميع... مع كل الإحترام والتقدير إليكم من إدارة موقع منارة الشرق للثقافة والإعلام.